Last update: 03/04/2012


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In Spanish this site can be read at:


General coordination:
Naum Kliksberg
Psychologist and sociologist

He has been appointed teacher at 8 Universities and Advisor of the World Heath Organization. Lecturer on scientific subjects invited by institutions and Universities from: United States, Israel, Argentina, Venezuela and Colombia. Countries where his opinion on professional subjects was required in television and radio shows, and in interviews for newspapers and magazines. Author of academic books and articles published by governments, publishing companies, and universities.

For further information about Naum Kliksberg’s professional background, and to read some of the interviews he was made in newspapers and magazines, click here: (in spanish)
Naum Kliksberg also coordinates the following Sites:

In English:

In Spanish:

This Site studies why sometimes unexpected improvements and spontaneous cures in health occur, even in people who suffer serious diseases, and why the “Placebo Effect” can cause them to occur. It explains why scientists placed the “Placebo Effect” in the first place on a list of the 13 greatest mysteries for science.
The texts set forth at the site are free.


In English:

In Spanish:

At this site the attention of educational institutions’ directors, teachers, students and parents is called, towards the importance that in educational effort the purpose of developing as much as possible students’ capacity to think intelligently and creatively is emphasized. This educates better professionals, and people who move away from violent religious fundamentalist groups’ way of thinking and attitude.

An educational institution, that wishes to develop intelligent and creative thinking in its students, requires using specific concepts and pedagogical techniques for that purpose, in which it should train teachers.

What can teachers at the classroom and parents at home do in order to develop more, in their students and children, the capacity to think intelligently and creatively? This site deals with this subject.

The texts offered at this Site are free.


In English:

In Spanish:

This site studies the particular problems and potentials of interfaith marriages (Jewish who married Christians, Catholics and Muslims, etc.) and intercultural and interracial marriages. The reasons why interfaith marriages and their children are discriminated against and rejected by religious fundamentalist groups that exist in all religions.
The texts set forth at the Site are free.


For World Peace

Two texts are offered free below:

- Text 1. A problem is explained for which in the next 20 years the world shall face a situation that shall cause the whole mankind to be in danger, and two proposals are made to face this problem in the best way possible.

- Text 2. A short story is presented: “Soldier Mambru’s Letters to his mother and to his girlfriend”. It is a short story especially designed for teachers. For its characteristics it is very useful for use at the classroom as a way of encouring students to analyze the concepts of war and peace.


Text 1

World Campaign for World Peace


In a few years, if defeat is made intolerable for the defeated party in a war, a small group of fanatics, with or without a government’s support, shall be able to obtain or to produce, at a low cost, small, latest-generation bombs, that can be carried by someone in a small suitcase, products of the new technologies which are being improved at present.

Only one of these bombs could cause millions of deaths in vast areas of the planet, because of the highly poisonous elements that they can disperse in the environment and because of the serious ecological lack of equilibrium that they can cause.

These bombs are:

1. Chemical.

Gases, toxic elements in water, in food, etc.

As a protection measure, against a possible chemical attack in the form of gases, the government of Israel distributed to the population special masks (1), and is installing toxic gas detectors at airports.

2. Radioactive.

These are known as “dirty bombs”, they project to the environment a deadly radiation cloud. Recently at the port of Haifa, Israel, devices were installed to detect “dirty bombs” which can come hidden in luggage or in imported good cases.

3. Biological.

They can cause deadly diseases by virus contagion that may spread rapidly in the population. One example of the destructive power of diseases can be seen in bubonic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia, in a short time it killed a third part of European inhabitants, in the Fourteenth Century.

4. Nuclear.

New small sized and powerful weapons. The president of Israel alerted about them in an interview, on December, 2008, saying, ‘What shall happen when people can go to any city carrying a small suitcase containing a nuclear weapon?’

These weapons are being improved every day by the progress in science, especially in biology and chemistry, at all the laboratories in the world where research is being done to contribute to human being’s development, why the use of this knowledge is inevitable for those who are interested in applying them to make weapons. Thus there is a paradox that the rapid progress of sciences creates the best possibilities for human being’s development but also the greatest dangers for mankind.

Today, fortunately, those weapons are NOT sufficiently effective, but in a few years the inevitable technological progress shall make them able to become the greatest danger for the existence of whole mankind.

That those weapons will be available in the next 20 years for any fundamentalist group does not mean that a world holocaust shall occur immediately, but it does mean that from that moment mankind shall begin the most dangerous time. We shall begin a historical time in which, in any war, as small as it may be, totally defeating the enemy, in a way that it is caused to retreat and humiliated in a total defeat, it can be the worst that can happen to the winner, and to all human beings of the world, because it can cause a reply with this kind of weapons by the defeated, which can be a great danger for the existence not only of its enemy, but also for the whole mankind, because of the pollution of environment by deadly substances.

For these reasons it is essential that there are no more wars in the world that can cause that risk. Therefore, everybody must, as he can, contribute to peace. Not only because it is the most ethical and solidary behavior with the populations that suffer wars, and because wars are the wildest way of trying to solve the differences, but also because in a few years, like never before in history, for the aforementioned reasons, any small war shall cause all of us to be in danger.

If we do not put an end to wars, each of us shall take great pains in making progress, studying, working, planning a future for himself and his family, under the permanent threat that at any time everything comes to an end, because a remote war, in any continent, can cause a group to activate a chemical or biological bomb that spreads deadly viruses in the atmosphere.

Before the risk of mankind‘s extinction, wars can no longer be permitted.

In order to achieve this purpose there is not too much time, it must be achieved before the inevitable progress of the technological development in the next 20 years potentiates the enormous destructive capacity of chemical and biological weapons, simplifies their production, making them available for any violent religious fundamentalist group, that could threaten mankind with them if it does not follow its wishes and requirements.

Religious fundamentalist groups shall be the greatest danger for the world when they have got those weapons, because according to the research done they are made up of individuals who are highly irrational.

Based on all scientific research (such as those well knonwn done by: James H. Leuba, Edward J. Larson, Larry Witham, Paul K. Conkin, Helmuth Nyborg, Richard Lynn, Sharon Bertsch, Bryan Pesta, all of which can be found on Internet) it is proved that: people who are better educated and/or who have a higher intelligence quotient, even if they believe in God, become much less religious fundamentalists than people who are less educated and/or who have a lower intelligence quotient.

The few people with a high education level and/or intelligence quotient, who fall into one of these religious fundamentalist proposals, do so because they need them to cover psychological needs that they do not find in the usual religious proposals that most believers accept, they approach religious fundamentalist groups that exist in all religions. The most important psychological needs they have are the following:

1. They need to fulfill rigid rules in their everyday life (that indicate them a certain way of dressing, eating, complying with a ritual, etc.).

2. An ideolgy that gives them “absolute certainties” about what should and what should not be done, about what is good and what is evil, who is evil – enemy and who is good – ally. (These people cannot tolerate the doubt, they need certainty).

3. A belief that assures them the continuation of life after the death of the body. These people become distressed and even desperate by the concept that there can be a possibility that once the body dies everything comes to an end. The doubt whether that is what happens or not, causes a degree of distress that is inevitable in all human beings, but most believers and non-believers learn to live with that doubt. People who approach any of the religious fundamentalist ideologies do not tolerate that doubt and distress, it unbalances their psychical system, and they think they can find “the absolute certainty” that life will continue after the death of the body only in religious fundamentalist beliefs.

With these simple proposals, the religious fundamentalist groups get more adepts among those who are less educated and/or less intelligent, according to the aforementioned research, but as we have already said, also some people with a high cultural level and/or intelligence can fall into them, if the three aforementioned psychological needs are presented to them in a very intensive way.

What will happen when these groups, with that high degree of irrationality, have got powerful massive destruction chemical and biological weapons?

The terrorist Bin Laden, personally, to a journalist’s question, whether he thought of using chemical and biological weapons, answered, ‘Acquiring weapons for the defense of Muslims is a religious duty. If I sought to acquire them I would be carrying out a duty’. (This interview was published in the renowned magazine “Times” of January, 1999).

Even the leaders of religious fundamentalist groups who until now did not have violent attitudes, because of their fundamentalist ideology shall possibly be tempted to carry out their purposes by threatening with those powerful chemical and biological bombs.

For the first time in mankind’s history, fight for peace, additionally to what it meant until now, shall also become the fight for the survival of human species, that never before was so much threatened as it shall be in a few years by the new and lethal massive destruction weapons.

For these reasons we made this “World Campaign for World Peace”. It consists in alerting and clarifying to the population about the new dangers that wars shall mean in very few years, and two proposals to finish wars in the world are set forth below.


When a conflict between countries and/or populations gets to a point that can cause a war, the United Nations, based on prioritizing, above any other consideration, the protection of the continuity of human life in the planet, shall create in it a “World Court for World Peace”, alien to every political, economic and military interest.

In order to ensure this, it must not be made up of politicians, army men, or businessmen, who can get personal benefits or of any other kind, from the conflict, it shall be made up only of the most renowned and respected humanist intellectuals of the world, the best of the planet, elected in direct elections by the citizens from each country when elections for president or lawmakers are made there.

A group of these people, selected by lots among all those elected in the countries, shall make up the aforementioned court of the United Nations.

When a conflict arises among countries and/or populations, these “World Courts for World Peace” shall study the arguments of all the parties in conflict, meanwhile, should it be necessary, an army of the United Nations shall prevent either sector from starting military actions.

The decisions of these “World Courts for World Peace” must be accepted by the parties in conflict and shall be binding on them.

The verdict of this kind of courts, since they are made up of the most renowned humanists of the world, shall influence greatly the world public opinion and the citizens from the countries in conflict, significantly weakening the pro-war sectors and strengthening pro-peace sectors, and facilitating economic, political and military sanctions, that the United Nations decide to impose on the party that does not want to observe the decision.

The mere existence of the jurisdiction of these Courts shall also have preventive effects, since it shall avoid the creation of conflicts, it shall encourage more the parties to reach agreements so as not to come to these Courts, especially the party that knows that its claims are more based on its greater strength than on its legal and moral right shall give in more.

This proposal shall have another benefit, the dynamics of the elections in each country to appoint the members of these Courts shall revalue worldwide humanist intellectuals’ role in each country, which shall have be beneficial for the populations.

Until enough pressure is created on world public opinion so that the aforementioned election can be achieved in each country, the courts shall be made up of all the people who were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize as well as all those who were officially nominated for it for their important humanistic contributions to the world.

So that there is a possibility for said “World Courts for World Peace” to be created in the United Nations, in each country, as many people as possible must become aware of this new danger for mankind. Many people must speak about this matter, thus creating a great social pressure on politicians asking for the creation of said Courts.

In the event that this proposal does not come true (which is quite probable, due to the strong opposition it shall have from those who believe that wars are the best option to solve differences, and from those who get benefits from wars), the mere diffusion of it and the reflections that it may achieve shall play a useful role, that of contributing to make the population in the world aware of the new danger of future wars, and shall encourage common citizens to do something, and not to remain powerless, mourning that the world can be rapidly approaching its annihilation, at the same speed at which technology progress improves the weapons that can destroy us, especially chemical and biological ones.

Even if the “World Courts for World Peace” are not achieved to be created, it shall be a very important progress if all of us succeed in that the proposal made in this text causes debates in the society from which the best proposals arise to achieve the purpose of avoiding wars in the world. Carrying out this purpose shall have another benefit: the enormous amount of money that is spent today in weapons can be assigned to reduce the number of poor people in the world (poverty, degradation of environment, and the chemical and biological bombs that shall be produced in a few years, are the three greatest problems of mankind).

The danger that those bombs shall mean soon is potentiated by the existence of violent religious fundamentalist groups in all religions.

What shall happen when those new and powerful chemical and biological bombs can be obtained by those groups, even if they do not have the support of any government?

Many people say that the issue of terrorists, regardless of their true threat, is used politically for interests that benefit therefrom.

If the United Nations’ Courts proposed in this World Campaign for World Peace are implemented, another benefit that can be obtained is that it would make political use of the legitimate fear of all the inhabitants of this planet that violent groups can exterminate mankind by using the future chemical and biological wepons, especially religious fundamentalist groups are more dangerous, because of their high degree of intolerance, because of the irrational contents of their ideology, and because they include in it the possibility of world destruction as something that God can wish, thus they can consider that those who destroy it might be rewarded by Him. In order to reduce the possibility of the development of those groups the following proposal is made.


In the world we must do our utmost to eliminate the traffic, production and storage of all massive destruction weapons. But for the characteristics of chemical and biological weapons those who will possibly be most interested in producing or buying them are violent religious fundamentalist groups, that cannot be controlled only with police and military actions, additionally the leaders of religious fundamentalist groups that until now are not violent, but are highly irrational, can be tempted in view of the power that those bombs can give them to threaten mankind with them if it does not fulfill their demands.

That is why we also propose in this Campaign for Peace, making a great international educational effort to encourage the greater number of people, especially the young, to read texts that inform about the various religious beliefs as well as non-believers’ grounds. This shall build more and better bridges of tolerance among the various beliefs, reduce prejudice, and remove the danger that many young people fall into violent fundamentalist religious positions and attitudes.

Reading only texts that strengthen one belief, disregarding or disdaining the other ones, is detrimental for the individual’s development, because it encourages the psychological process that takes him first to the “fundamentalist attitude of mind”, and then to the “fundamentalist violent attitude”.

People’s psychology is complex, contradictory and has high degrees of irrationality. These characteristics of human condition brought about wars that caused pain and death.

What contributes to this sad reality is that:

- Many people are ready to get to kill for their beliefs.

- Many people are ready to get to die for their beliefs.

- Few people are ready to reflect critically and deeply, on the grounds of their beliefs.

Should more people reflect on their beliefs and those of other religions, we would build a better world, more tolerant, with fewer religious fundamentalists, and we would remove the aforementioned danger for the existence of mankind.

We invite institutions of all kinds, to join the educational effort we are proposing.

It is essential that all of us cooperate in spreading by all means the texts that are useful to move people away from religious fundamentalist ideologies, texts that show the irrational aspects of those ideologies, and the danger they imply for the whole mankind (2).

It also contributes, to a significant degree, to young people’s rejection of the fundamentalists’ way of thinking and attitude, that educational institutions make greater efforts to succeed as much as possible in developing students’ capacity of intelligent and creative thinking (3).

When the new latest generation chemical and biological bombs are available, there will be no room in the world for irrationality, it shall be incompatible with human beings’ chances of survival in the planet (4).


1) News of April 6, 2010

Author: Israeli Radio

Millions of gas masks start to be distributed in Israel

Millions of gas masks started to be distributed to the whole Israeli population, Deputy Minister of Defense of Israel Matan Vilnai said on Tuesday.

‘Millions of protection kits are available against bacteriological and chemical warfare, and their massive distribution to the population is starting today’, Vilnai stated to the Israeli army radio.

On January 5, the Israeli government decided to give all Israeli gas masks from now until late 2013, that is some 8 million people.

Israel fears eventual chemical or bacteriological attacks from Iran or Syria.

It could be viewed at:

News of May 7, 2010

Author: Israeli Radio

Israel could suffer a chemical attack

Israel could be a victim of a chemical or nuclear attack from Iran and from the Lebanese terrorist movement Hezbollah, allegedly controlled by the Islamic country, assumes US retired general Paul Vallely, who is currently a military analyst at a renowned US channel.

Vallely is sure that the TERRORIST Group Hezbollah will be the means that Iran will use to conduct an offensive against Israel. He says that the chemical weapons were on board of a submarine that arrived recently at Beirut Gate, which is confirmed by Israeli authorities’ decision to begin the distribution of gas masks to the population.

The president of the news agency Pajamas Media, Roger Simon, also thinks that all the efforts made by UN Security Council to stabilize the Middle East situation have failed. ‘We all know Iran’s intention to own nuclear and chemical weapons, and this summer Israel shall have to oppose alone his allies’ attack’, says Simon. ‘But this time Scuds with chemical warheads shall reach Tel Aviv and Jerusalem’.

It could be viewed at:

2) We recommend reading the following texts, where the common aspects of all religious fundamentalist groups of all religions. Their use at the classroom by high school and university teachers is especially useful. Students, after reading these texts, move away from religious fundamentalisms, when they know the high degree of irrationality and danger of their particular way of thinking.

-“Knowing Orhodox Rabbis and the fundamentalisms of all religions”:

- About fundamentalist groups’ leaders’ fear of “verbal pollution”:


3) Information about pedagogical concepts and methods for a better development of students’ intelligence, can be read at:

In English:

In Spanish:

4) About the issue of chemical and biological weapons, on web searches a great deal of information can be found at numerous sites. We recommend reading them, so that everybody can confirm the danger that they shall represent in a few years.

Some of the numerous sites, where information can be found, from government sources, that support what we set forth at this site, are the following:

Chemical and biological weapons – Federal Emergency Management Agency.


Emergency Preparedness and Response

Internet videos that we selected for you about this issue:

News on TV:

Document in 5 sections that was watched Worldwide on TV:







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to achieve a world without wars?

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TEXTO 2. Soldier Mambru’s

to his mother
and to his girlfriend

Text dedicated, in solidary memory of and homage to all the civilians and soldiers who died in all wars worldwide.

A short story especially designed for teachers, for its characteristics it is very useful for use at the classroom as a way of encouraging students to analyze the concepts of war and peace.

The wars in which soldier Mambru fought were:

He fought in all the wars that were made since man is on the earth, in the recent years some of them were as follows:

- War: Great Britain against Afrikaners for the Orange Free State, in South Africa, 1899-1902.
- War: Russia against Japan, 1904-1905
- World War I: 1914-1918.
- Spanish Civil War: 1936-1939
- World War II: 1939-1945.
- Arabian-Israeli Wars:
First war: Israel against Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and Transjordan, 1948-1949.
Second war: Israel against Egypt, 1956.
Third war: Israel against Egypt, Syria and Jordan, 1967.
Fourth war: Israel against Egypt and Syria, 1973.
Fifth war: Israel against PLO, and Lebanon, 1982.
Sixth war: Israel against Hezbollah, in Lebanon, 2006.
Seventh war: Israel against Hamas, in Gaza, 2009.

- Korean War: South Korea against North Korea, it involved 20 nations, 1950-1953.

- Vietnam War: 1965-1975.

- Falkland Islands War: Argentina against Great Britain, 1982.

- Gulf War: Iraq against Kuwait and an army made up of several countries lead by United States, with UN’s mandate, 1990-1991.

- Balkan War: 1991-1995.

- Iraq War: Iraq against United States and Great Britain as the leading forces of a coalition, 2003.

Mambru’s letter to his girlfriend

Do you remember...?, our small village tanned under the gentle sun of that summer afternoon. We dozed protected by the cool shadow of the great tree that straightened up graceful at the edge of the river. We did not hear he heavy steps of the boots, nor did we see the fear on children’s face, we woke up only when the sound of the clarion deafened the air. You took my hand, and together with curiosity striking our chests, we ran with our adolescent laugh to the village.
Everything happened quickly... the soldiers with their threatening weapons, the sergeant lining up all the men that he considered fit in a brief visual study, and then the categorical and authoritarian voice of the officer in the uniform with golden buttons, ¡recruits... march!

Women cried, children proclaimed their innocence with a desperate call,
- father, father, where are they taking you?...

The men with their heads down, passed in front of us, one after another, surrounded by soldiers,
¡soldiers in front!
¡soldiers at the back!
¡soldiers at the sides!

We were still in that sleepy incredulous state, when the sergeant pointing at me with his finger as if it were a weapon, with his sour and domineering voice cried....
- You... ¡to the line!

I felt the irrepressible wish to run, but my shaking legs did not respond, they seemed tied to the ground. The short silence between him and us covered the noises from the village, our supplicant and frightened looks could not hold the sun, or the sky pureness, they disappeared at a sudden and absurd darkness that invaded my eyes. The silence trembled.
- What is your name?

Do you remember?... I pressed your hand in mine, and answered, timidly, in a trembling voice, almost inaudible...
- Mambru.

Your soft hand, full of a girlfriend’s love, could not avoid it, and I, Mambru, with my 19 years old of a small village, went to the line.
In the large courtyard of the barracks in military posture, in front of the flag, at the sides white, black, yellow faces, faces like mine. Faces with tense, frightened looks, like mine. The general spoke... God... the flag... the enemy... ¡Swear! It seemed an order. ¡It was an order!
The white, black, yellow faces, swore. I swore like them. I continued like them with the tense, frightened look. If you ask me what did I swear?, I could not answer to you. My ears only heard you weeping and the cries of the children of the village.
Then... everything was so rapid... the cannons and guns noise had silenced the birds’ chant, the man rejected the night, he drove it away with his firing lights. I was motionless, almost without breathing, in a small trench, with a gun between my legs. Still, almost without breathing. And it was not for fear. ¡I swear that it was not for fear! I was ready to fight against the fury of the sea and the vigor of the hurricane. No, I was not afraid of dying fighting against cold or hunger. But... do you know what the sergeant had ordered to me? Do you remember the comrades about whom I talked to you? Those with white, black, yellow faces. Those with tense, and frightened looks like mine, well, the sergeant ordered to me ¡to kill them!, and... he said that quietly, naturally, as if he were saying something admissible. Do you realize ¡how absurd! ¡that I kill my comrades!
Everything has finished. Now I am writing to you from a small cell in the prison of the barracks, but do not become alarmed, it is only until everything is clear, in a few hours the military court shall meet, and I will be able to explain to them that I could not obey the sergeant because those he ordered me to kill were my friends, and that although they wore uniforms of a different color, I could recognize them, because they were the same white, black, yellow faces, and they had the same tense and frightened looks as mine.

I already hear the military tapping of the soldiers who are coming to take me before the military court. When I am before them I will ask them not to send me back to the battle front, that I will never kill anybody, that they let me go back to my small village.

They are already opening the cell door, I will finish the letter later and I am sure that it will be telling you that we shall meet soon. You know, I miss a lot your hand in mine.

Mambru’s Letter to his mother

Dear mom... I imagine the sorrow you felt when you returned to the village, after having visited your sister, and you were told that in your absence I was taken to the war.
I wish I were with you, I wish you had no reasons to worry about me.

After dad’s death you worked hardly to bring me up, every time that I was sick you did not separate from me, the fondling and love that you gave me were the best medicine I could have. When we fell short of food you gave me bread and you lied to me saying that you had already eaten. These and other memories come at these times to my mind filling my heart with love for you.

Do you remember... our walks at the edge of the river, you always told me that I was the best that you had in your life and that this was enough to make you happy and grateful to God, that when I grew up and gave you grandchildren your heart would puff up so much with love that you would fly for happiness. You always gave me so much love that in spite of our poverty I never felt that I lacked anything, thanks to that love I never felt envy, or sadness, because children in better economic conditions could go to school and buy things that I would also have liked to have.

Today I cry and suffer because I know that you are crying and suffering, but let us dry our tears because we shall soon be together, because nobody has reasons to hurt me, I never hurt anybody. All this is just a mistake, I must not be here, this is not my place.

Soon, very soon, I shall kiss your eyelids, as you like, and we will laugh together again.

Dear Mrs. Mambru,

You are hereby informed that your son, soldier Mambru, has died in the battle front.

We enclose herewith two letters written by soldier Mambru, addressed to his girlfriend and to his mother. They were found among his particulars.

Who cries for Mambru?

The soldier went to the war
and from the war he did not return
They were the generals’ orders
for which a soldier
in another’s hands died
the generals do not cry,


the mother,

the girlfriend,

and the soldier who killed him.

The texts set forth at this site have been registered as intellectual property, the author is Naum Kliksberg, who authorizes free their total or partial reproduction and spreading, provided that it is done free and mentioning the author and the following source:
In English:

In Spanish: